Tuesday, January 14, 2020
Government Hospitals of India
Healthcare in India features a universal health care system run by the constituent states and territories of India. The Constitutioncharges every state with Ã¢â¬Å"raising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health as among its primary dutiesÃ¢â¬ . The National Health Policy was endorsed by the Parliament of India in 1983 and updated in 2002.  However, the government sector is understaffed and underfinanced; poor services at state-run hospitals force many people to visit private medical practitioners. citation needed] Government hospitals, some of which are among the best hospitals in India, provide treatment at taxpayer expense. Most essential drugs are offered free of charge in these hospitals. Government hospitals provide treatment either free or at minimal charges. For example, an outpatient card at AIIMS (one of the best hospitals in India) costs a one time fee of rupees 10 (around 20 cents US) and thereafter outp atient medical advice is free. In-hospital treatment costs depend on financial condition of the patient and facilities utilized by him but are usually much less than the private sector.For instance, a patient is waived treatment costs if he is below poverty line. Another patient may seek for an air-conditioned room if he is willing to pay extra for it. The charges for basic in-hospital treatment and investigations are much less compared to the private sector. The cost for these subsidies comes from annual allocations from the central and state governments. Primary health care is provided by city and district hospitals and rural primary health centres (PHCs). These hospitals provide treatment free of cost.Primary care is focused on immunization, prevention of malnutrition, pregnancy, child birth, postnatal care, and treatment of common illnesses.  Patients who receive specialized care or have complicated illnesses are referred to secondary (often located in district and taluk headquarters) and tertiary care hospitals (located in district and state headquarters or those that are teaching hospitals).  In recent times,[when? ] India has eradicated mass famines, however the country still suffers from high levels of malnutrition and disease especially in rural areas.Water supply and sanitation in India is also a major issue in the country and many Indians in rural areas lack access to proper sanitation facilities and safe drinking water. However, at the same time, India's health care system also includes entities that meet or exceed international quality standards. The medical tourism business in India has been growing in recent years and as such India is a popular destination for medical tourists who receive effective medical treatment at lower costs than in developed countries.Disease India suffers from high levels of disease including Malaria, and Tuberculosis where one third of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s tuberculosis cases are in In dia.  In addition, India along with Nigeria, Pakistan and Afghanistan is one of the four countries worldwide where polio has not as yet been eradicated. Ongoing government of India education about HIV has led to decreases in the spread of HIV in recent years. The number of people living with AIDS in India is estimated to be between 2 and 3 million.However, in terms of the total population this is a small number. The country has had a sharp decrease in the estimated number of HIV infections; 2005 reports had claimed that there were 5. 2 million to 5. 7 million people afflicted with the virus. The new figures are supported by the World Health Organization and UNAIDS.  Pollution According to the World Health Organization 900,000 Indians die each year from drinking contaminated water and breathing in polluted air. 22] As India grapples with these basic issues, new challenges are emerging for example there is a rise in chronic adult diseases such as cardiovascular i llnesses and diabetes as a consequence of changing lifestyles.  Malnutrition Half of children in India are underweight, one of the highest rates in the world and nearly same as Sub-Saharan Africa.  India contributes to about 5. 6 million child deaths every year, more than half the world's total.  Water and sanitation Main article: Water supply and sanitation in India Water supply and sanitation in India is a matter of concern.As of 2003, it was estimated that only 30% of India's wastewater was being treated, with the remainder flowing into rivers orgroundwater.  The lack of toilet facilities in many areas also presents a major health risk; open defecation is widespread even in urban areas of India, and it was estimated in 2002 by the World Health Organisation that around 700,000 Indians die each year from diarrhoea.  No city in India has full-day water supply. Most cities supply water only a few hours a day.  In towns and rural areas the s ituation is even worse.